Vat Dyes and Its Properties - Vat dyes are different from reactive dyes, disperse dyes, basic dyes, acid dyes or azoic color but its application process is near similar as sulphur dyes. Vat dyes are used for coloring cellulosic fiber specially cotton fiber. It is widely used for run the dyeing process of cotton yarns which is used for producing jeans or denim product.
The word vat is come from vessel; vat dyes can be applied in a vat for coloration textile products. Vat dyes are natural coloring materials which are solubilized in a vat by the fermentation process called vatting.
Vat dyes are insoluble in water but it becomes in soluble form by vatting process. The process of converting insoluble vat dyes into soluble form is known as vatting.
Properties of vat dyes: Vat dyes have lots of properties which are required to remember before and during dyeing process. Followings are the main properties of vat dyes.
- Vat dyes are natural coloring dyes.
- Vat dyes are insoluble in water.
- Vatting process is needed for making the insoluble vat dyes into soluble form.
- Final color is developed by the oxidation process.
- Vatting is done in alkaline condition.
- Fastness properties of the dyes are excellent but its rubbing properties are not so good.
- Sometimes, it causes different types of skin disease.
- Vat dyes are mainly used for coloring cellulosic fibers.
- Stability of the color in the fiber is excellent.
- Wide range of color can be achieved by these dyes.
- Application of vat dyes is limited in practical life.
- Vat dyes are expensive in price.
Properties of Vat DyesThe vat dyes have high color fastness, which is uncommon in other dye classes. On the other hand, vat dyes tend to have poor rubbing fastness, but this can be mitigated with special treatments to the fabric. Indigo is subject to major crocking unless it is applied carefully. This means use a weaker dye bath, and dipping many times, rather than a single strong dipping.
Light-oxidized vat dyes
Inkodye is a type of vat dye that uses light rather than oxygen to "fix" the dye, with a wide variety of possible effects. These dyes, which are chemically similar to vat dyes, are developed by light instead of being applied in an oxygen-free bath and being developed in the fabric by exposure to oxygen. Inkodyes are true dyes, not fabric paints. A dye itself attaches to the fabric; fabric paint includes a glue-like binder, which imparts a stiffer feeling to the fabric. The process is more difficult than tie-dyeing.