Weaving is the process of fabric development through using two distinct sets of threads or yarns in which these yarns are interlaced together through which a fabric is produced. The longitudnal yarns are called the warp and the horizontal / lateral yarns are called the weft or filling.
For weaving, usually, looms are used i.e., a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them.
The way the warp yarns and weft yarns interlaced with each other is called the weave. The majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves: Plain weave, satin/sateen weave and twill weave.Woven fabric can be of plain weave or it can be woven in decorative and attractive designs.
The yarn count and number of warp and filling yarns to the square inch determine the closeness or looseness of a weave. Woven fabrics may also be varied by the proportion of warp yarns to filling yarns. Some effects are achieved by the selection of yarns or of combinations of yarns.
Fabric are designed in wide varieties and the different designs and effect is produced on the fabric with the help for various mechanism which is helpful to different weaves.In the simple weaving arrangement, alternate or warp yarns are over and under the shuttle as it moves in one direction and the warp yarns are reversed for the return stroke of the shuttle. This weave can be made on a loom with only two harnesses.
The pattern or repeat in a weave is the smallest unit of the weave which when repeated will produce the design required in the fabric. There are many ways of representing a weave, a most familiar method bring to use square design paper.
Plain, or tabby, weave, the simplest and most common of all weaves, requires only two harnessses and has two warp and weft yarns in each weave unit. Twill weave is distinguished by diagonal lines. The simplest twill is that created by the weft crossing over two warp yarns, then under one, the sequence being repeated in each succeeding shot (pick), but stepped over, one warp either to the left or right. satin weave does not have the regular step in each successive weft that is characteristic of twills.Satin have long floats due to which it cannot be used for any strong fabric.The most important variation of satin weave, it is the weft faced satin. Complex weaves can be easily created by combining basic weaves by way of simple assignment to the warp and weft interlacement points and specifying the number of repeats.
In order to interlace the warp and weft yarn, there are three operations which often called primary motions are necessary: Shedding,Picking and Beating.